IG Farben-made Zyklon B poison gas canisters were thrown into the shower chambers. Several IG Farben directors were found guilty of war crimes arising from their actions during WW2. Peter Hayes writes that the board did not meet after 1940, and that although Mann "continued to review the monthly sales figures for Degesch, he could not necessarily have inferred from them the uses to which the Auschwitz camp was putting the product". Altogether its annual net profit was around RM 0.5 billion (equivalent to 2 billion 2017 euros). [citation needed] In January 1955 the Allied High Commission issued the I.G. Archived from the original on 19 April 2017. Sur les 24 accusés, 13 ont été condamnés à des peines de prison, 10 ont ét… Orders to that effect again are to be given to the leading German gentlemen so that there may be no misunderstanding in their execution. Head of dept. The indictment was filed on May 3, 1947; the trial lasted from August 27, 1947, until July 30, 1948. The patients were suffering from, and in many cases had been deliberately infected with, typhoid, tuberculosis, diphtheria and other diseases, then were given preparations named Rutenol, Periston, B-1012, B-1034, B-1036, 3582 and P-111. [26] The two alliances were loosely connected with each other through an agreement between BASF and Hoechst to jointly exploit the patent on the Heumann-Pfleger indigo synthesis. War crimes and crimes against humanity through participation in the, Membership in a criminal organization, the. IG Farben was the private German chemicals company allied with the Nazis that … [10] When World War II began, it was the fourth largest corporation in the world and the largest in Europe. [34] The company is perhaps best known for its role in producing the poison gas Zyklon B. [29] The designation was used as the title of an East German film, The Council of the Gods (1950). Farben and Krupp trials", "Elimination of German Resources for War", "Die Entflechtung der I.G. At Auschwitz they were led by Bayer employee Helmuth Vetter, an Auschwitz camp physician and SS captain, and Auschwitz physicians Friedrich Entress and Eduard Wirths. Others argued for the formation of a profit pool or Interessen-Gemeinschaft (abbr. Telford Taylor was the chief counsel for the prosecution. Instead, Hoechst and Cassella made an alliance based on mutual equity stakes in 1904. Joined the board and supervisory council of WASAG Chemie-AG and Mitteldeutsche Sprengstoff-Werke GmbH. Farben Leverkusen and sold from the Bayer sales office through Degesch, an independent license holder. It includes other Farben Vorstand plant-managers and embraces all who knowingly participated in the shaping of the corporate policy.[3][4]. [52] In 1949 Mann became head of pharmaceutical sales at Bayer. [25][page needed], Hoechst and several pharmaceutical firms refused to join. What is interesting is that ‘popular’ books and media for 70 years stated “Six Million European Jews were killed”. [58] Charles Coward, a British POW who had been held at Auschwitz III, told the IG Farben trial: The population at Auschwitz was fully aware that people were being gassed and burned. Despite the extensive evidence presented by the prosecution that showed that the company had been deeply involved in Germany's rearmament after World War I from the onset, the tribunal rejected the charges for preparing an aggressive war and for conspiracy to that end. [69] All were cleared of the first count of waging war. [46] A Bayer employee wrote to Rudolf Höss, the Auschwitz commandant: "The transport of 150 women arrived in good condition. Head of pharmaceutical sales for the Bayer. Moderna was a pharmaceutical company that started in Germany under the name IG Farben," the conspiracy further states. [56] Dürrfeld, a friend of Höss, denied knowing about it.[57]. John Paul II 1978- 2005 "In the early 1940`s, the I.G. [62], The Americans seized the company's property under "General Order No. After the Nuremberg trials, companies like BASF and Bayer were formed from the splintered monolith. IG Farben's products included synthetic dyes, nitrile rubber, polyurethane, prontosil, and chloroquine. Carl Bosch and Friedrich Bergius were awarded the Nobel Prize in Chemistry in 1931 "in recognition of their contributions to the invention and development of chemical high pressure methods". [6] Gerhard Domagk was awarded the Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine in 1939 "for the discovery of the antibacterial effects of prontosil". [51], Several IG Farben executives said after the war that they did not know about the gassings, despite the increase in sales of Zyklon B to Auschwitz. After the end of World War I, chemical companies in Germany merged to form IG Farben. Weiler Ter Meer[1]—it was seized by the Allies after World War II and divided back into its constituent companies. (Case VI)", "The Devil's Chemists on Trial: The American Prosecution of I.G. IG Farben hield het patent op Zyklon B, maar het werd geproduceerd door Degesch (Deutsche Gesellschaft für Schädlingsbekämpfung, in vertaling 'Duitse maatschappij voor de bestrijding van schadelijke planten en dieren'), waar IG Farben een belang van 42,2% in had. Not a single member of the management of IG Farben before 1933 supported the Nazi Party; four members, or a third, of the IG Farben supervisory board were themselves Jewish. On count three ("slave labor"), the judgement "allowed the defendants the benefit of the defense of 'necessity'" (Telford Taylor, "The Nuremberg War Crimes Trials"; International Conciliation, No. [38], Company executives said after the war that they had not known what was happening inside the camps. [1] The supervisory board members became widely known as, and were said to call themselves jokingly, the "Council of Gods" (Rat der Götter). Five smaller firms, Agfa, Cassella, Chemische Fabrik Kalle, Chemische Fabrik Griesheim-Elektron and Chemische Fabrik vorm. Zyklon-B IG Farben Degesch Connecting Zyklon-B and RU-486 According to the New York Times , research for RU-486 began under the supervision of French researcher Etienne-Emile Baulieu in conjunction with Groupe Roussel Uclaf, the French drug company for which he was a consultant. [17] What remained of IG Farben in the West was split in 1951 into its six constituent companies, then again into three: BASF, Bayer and Hoechst. On one occasion they complained about the stench of the burning bodies. 10, October 1946 – April 1949", The Authentic Records from the Nuremberg Tribunal Against the Oil and Drug Cartel, The “relay of life” to the next generation - IG Farben connection, Trial of the Major War Criminals before the International Military Tribunal, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=IG_Farben_Trial&oldid=992934374, United States Nuremberg Military Tribunals, Articles needing additional references from March 2018, All articles needing additional references, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, 6 years, including time already served; died 1968, 4 years, including time already served; died 1960, 2½ years, including time already served; died 1962, Chief Counsel; Head of the legal department, Head of dept. [61] Dürrfeld was sentenced to eight years, then pardoned in 1951 by John McCloy, the American high commissioner for Germany, after which he joined the management or supervisory boards of several chemical companies. Products Once Hitler officially came to power, they agreed on … Most were quickly restored to their directorships and other positions in post-war companies, and some were awarded the Federal Cross of Merit. Agen saraf Sarin mula-mula ditemui oleh IG Farben. Verfassungen der Welt. Hayes writes that the inmates of Auschwitz III, which supplied the slave labour for IG Farben, were well aware of the gas chambers, in part because of the stench from the Auschwitz II crematoria, and in part because IG Farben supervisors in the camp spoke about the gassings, including using the threat of them to make the inmates work harder. In World War II, Degesch (42.5 per cent owned by IG Farben) was the trademark holder of Zyklon B, the poison gas used at some Nazi extermination camps. IG Farben owned 42.5 percent of Degesch shares, and three members of Degesch's 11-person executive board, Wilhelm Rudolf Mann, Heinrich Hörlein and Carl Wurster, were directors of IG Farben. Efter andra världskriget splittrades koncernen (bland annat … IG Farben toimitti tuhoamis-ja keskitysleireille vankien surmaamiseen käytetyn Zyklon B-myrkkykaasun. It consisted of hydrogen cyanide, as well as a cautionary eye irritant and one of several adsorbents such as diatomaceous earth. [43], Staff of the Bayer group at IG Farben conducted medical experiments on concentration-camp inmates at Auschwitz and at the Mauthausen concentration camp. The indictment was filed on 3 May 1947; the trial lasted from 27 August 1947 until 30 July 1948. Farben Chemical Company employed a Polish salesman who sold cyanide to the Nazis for use in Auschwitz.The same salesman also worked as a chemist in the manufacture of the poison gas. 450, April 1949). In 1913 these eight firms produced almost 90 percent of the world supply of dyestuffs and sold about 80 percent of their production abroad. IG Farben scientists made fundamental contributions to all areas of chemistry. Tuhansia ihmisiä kuoli pakkotyönsä aikana. It was the largest plant in the world, and one of the cheapest, because it was built and operated by slave labourers from the Auschwitz concentration camp. According to prisoner-physicians who witnessed the experiments, after being given the drugs the women would experience circulation problems, bloody vomiting, and painful diarrhea "containing fragments of muscus membrane". Il a eu lieu du 27 août 1947 au 30 juin 1948. The company had been a major factor already in World War I, when their development of the Haber–Bosch process for nitrogen fixation compensated for Germany's being cut off from the Chilean nitrate trade and allowed IG Farben to produce synthetic nitrate and extract and process nitrogen for use in agricultural fertilizer. [12][44] [16] By 1951 all had been released by the American high commissioner for Germany, John J. This page was last edited on 7 December 2020, at 22:10. [37] One of IG Farben's subsidiaries supplied the poison gas, Zyklon B, that killed over one million people in gas chambers. Although there was some cooperation between the technical staff in production and accounting, there was little cooperation between the firms in other areas. Learn how and when to remove this template message, "Trials of War Criminals before the Nuernberg Military Tribunals under Control Council Law No. Disregard of basic human rights did not deter these defendants. Throughout that decade it purged itself of its Jewish employees; the remainder left in 1938. Only Schneider, Bütefisch, and von der Heyde were charged on count 4, "Membership in the SS". I — Indicted   G — Indicted and found guilty. [19] The three major firms had also integrated upstream into the production of essential raw materials, and they began to expand into other areas of chemistry such as pharmaceuticals, photographic film, agricultural chemicals and electrochemicals. Of the 50 typhoid sufferers given 3852, 15 died; 40 of the 75 tuberculosis patients given Rutenol died. Also see .mw-parser-output cite.citation{font-style:inherit}.mw-parser-output .citation q{quotes:"\"""\"""'""'"}.mw-parser-output .id-lock-free a,.mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-free a{background:linear-gradient(transparent,transparent),url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/6/65/Lock-green.svg")right 0.1em center/9px no-repeat}.mw-parser-output .id-lock-limited a,.mw-parser-output .id-lock-registration a,.mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-limited a,.mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-registration a{background:linear-gradient(transparent,transparent),url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/d/d6/Lock-gray-alt-2.svg")right 0.1em center/9px no-repeat}.mw-parser-output .id-lock-subscription a,.mw-parser-output .citation .cs1-lock-subscription a{background:linear-gradient(transparent,transparent),url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/a/aa/Lock-red-alt-2.svg")right 0.1em center/9px no-repeat}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration{color:#555}.mw-parser-output .cs1-subscription span,.mw-parser-output .cs1-registration span{border-bottom:1px dotted;cursor:help}.mw-parser-output .cs1-ws-icon a{background:linear-gradient(transparent,transparent),url("//upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/commons/4/4c/Wikisource-logo.svg")right 0.1em center/12px no-repeat}.mw-parser-output code.cs1-code{color:inherit;background:inherit;border:none;padding:inherit}.mw-parser-output .cs1-hidden-error{display:none;font-size:100%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-visible-error{font-size:100%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-maint{display:none;color:#33aa33;margin-left:0.3em}.mw-parser-output .cs1-format{font-size:95%}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-left,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-left{padding-left:0.2em}.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-right,.mw-parser-output .cs1-kern-wl-right{padding-right:0.2em}.mw-parser-output .citation .mw-selflink{font-weight:inherit}"Law No. The minutes of a meeting of the Commercial Committee on 10 September 1937 noted: It is generally agreed that under no circumstances should anybody be assigned to our agencies abroad who is not a member of the German Labor Front and whose positive attitude towards the new era has not been established beyond any doubt. Gentlemen who are sent abroad should be made to realize that it is their special duty to represent National Socialist Germany. The first American air raid on Frankfurt came on January 29, 1944, when a vast fleet of 800 B-17 Flying Fortresses obliterated the entire city—except the IG Farben … While it did not join a national compensation fund set up in 2001 to pay the victims, it contributed 500,000 DM (£160,000 or €255,646) towards a foundation for former captive labourers under the Nazi regime. One ton of Zyklon B was enough to kill around 312,500 people. The Nazi chemicals giant IG Farben used forced labor and made poison gas. IG Farben tenía gerentes en su comité director. Held from 1947 to 1948 as one of the subsequent Nuremberg trials, the IG Farben trial saw 23 IG Farben directors tried for war crimes and 13 convicted. In October 1904 an Interessen-Gemeinschaft between Bayer, BASF and Agfa was formed, also known as the Dreibund or little IG. Höss replied that he could not discuss it and thereafter assumed that Dürrfeld knew. IG Farben was the private German chemicals company allied with the Nazis that manufactured the Zyklon B gas used to commit genocide against millions of European Jews in the Holocaust. [68] The heaviest sentences went to those involved with Auschwitz,[69] which was IG Farben's Upper Rhine group. The pesticide Zyklon B, for which IG Farben held the patent, was manufactured by Degesch (Deutsche Gesellschaft für Schädlingsbekämpfung), which IG Farben owned 42.2 percent of (in shares) and which had IG Farben managers in its Managing Committee. They paid RM 150 per woman, all of whom died as a result of the research; the camp had asked for RM 200 per person, but Bayer had said that was too high. Three major firms BASF, Bayer and Hoechst, produced several hundred different dyes. [1] BASF was the nominal survivor; all shares were exchanged for BASF shares. Le Zyklon B est un pesticide à base d'acide cyanhydrique breveté par le chimiste Walter Heerdt (ancien collaborateur de Fritz Haber) et produit par la firme allemande Degesch.. Durant la Seconde Guerre mondiale, les nazis l'ont utilisé dans les chambres à gaz des centres d'extermination : les premiers essais homicides ont été effectués dans le bloc 11 d'Auschwitz I … (Monowitz came to be known as Auschwitz III; Auschwitz I was the administrative centre and Auschwitz II-Birkenau the extermination camp.) The pesticide Zyklon B, for which IG Farben held the patent, was manufactured by Degesch (Deutsche Gesellschaft für Schädlingsbekämpfung), which IG Farben had 42.2 percent (in shares) of and which had IG managers in its Managing Committee. Fritz ter Meer, an IG Farben director and Nazi Party member who directed operations at the IG Farben plant at Auschwitz, was sentenced in 1948 to seven years for war crimes during the IG Farben Trial at Nuremberg. [2], Willing cooperation with the slave labor utilization of the Third Reich was a matter of corporate policy that permeated the whole Farben organization... For this reason, criminal responsibility goes beyond the actual immediate participants at Auschwitz. The firm's factories included a synthetic rubber plant at the Auschwitz concentration camp where 30,000 people worked until they died or were deemed unfit and sent to the gas chambers. Died 1968. Contrary to other industries, the founders and their families had little influence on the top-level decision-making of the leading German chemical firms, which was in the hands of professional salaried managers. Farbenindustrie AG in Liquidation).[66]. Now IG Farben … The manpower was thousands of forced laborers, most of them Jews, who suffered from hunger and cold and died from the harsh working conditions. In 1908 Hoechst and Cassella acquired 88 percent of the shares of Chemische Fabrik Kalle. [24] In 1904, after returning to Germany, he proposed a nationwide merger of the producers of dye and pharmaceuticals in a memorandum to Gustav von Brüning, the senior manager at Hoechst. Following several later mergers the main successor companies are Agfa, BASF, Bayer and Sanofi. The successor companies remain some of the world's largest chemical and pharmaceutical companies. The SS had been declared a criminal organization previously by the IMT. Acting as leaders in a conspiracy to commit the crimes mentioned under counts 1, 2, and 3. This prompted Duisberg and Heinrich von Brunck, chairman of BASF, to accelerate their negotiations. One product crucial to the operations of the Wehrmacht was synthetic fuel, made from lignite using the coal liquefaction process. Judge Hebert filed a dissenting opinion, in which he argued that the defense of "necessity" did not apply and that all defendants should have been found guilty on count 3 of the indictment. [54] According to the post-war testimony of Rudolf Höss, the Auschwitz commandant, he was asked by Walter Dürrfeld [de], technical manager of the IG Farben Auschwitz plant, whether it was true that Jews were being cremated at Auschwitz. Farben in Liquidation from the 1950s to 1990", "Subsequent Nuremberg Proceedings, Case #6, The IG Farben Case", "Fritz (Friedrich Hermann) ter Meer (1884–1967)", "Ehemalige Zwangsarbeiter gehen leer aus", Carr, Jay. Similar mergers took place in other countries. Degussa produced the anti-graffiti substance Protectosil used to cover the stelae which are the major element in the memorial. [8] A decade later, it was a Nazi Party donor and, after the Nazi takeover of Germany in 1933, a major government contractor, providing significant material for the German war effort. It had been continually criticized over the years for failing to pay compensation to the former labourers; its stated reason for its continued existence after 1952 was to administer its claims and pay its debts. Fumigation took place within a closed room, but it was a slow process, so Degesch recommended building small gas chambers, which heated the gas to over 30 °C and killed the lice within one hour. [20] Because of this unique situation, the economic historian Alfred Chandler called the German dye companies "the world's first truly managerial industrial enterprises". [86] Its stock (denominated in Reichsmarks) traded on German markets until early 2012. "[42], By 1943 IG Farben was manufacturing products worth three billion marks in 334 facilities in occupied Europe; almost half its workforce of 330,000 men and women consisted of slave labour or conscripts, including 30,000 Auschwitz prisoners. Farben at Nuremberg", "Trials of War Criminals before the Nuernberg Military Tribunals under Control Council Law No. [52] Mann, who had been an SA-Sturmführer,[53] was the chair of Degesch's board. (The two other industrialist trials were the Flick Trial and the Krupp Trial.). The twelve U.S. trials are collectively known as the "Subsequent Nuremberg Trials" or, more formally, as the "Trials of War Criminals before the Nuremberg Military Tribunals" (NMT). IG Farben has been described as "the most notorious German industrial concern during the Third Reich". I, in charge of nitrogen and gasoline production; Head of the chemical warfare committee at the war ministry; 8 years including time already served; died 1990, Removed from trial due to medical reasons, 2 years including time already served-died 1966, 6 years including time already served; died 1969, 2 years including time already served-died 15 Nov 1950, 3 years including time already served; died 1966, 1½ years including time already served; died 1965, 2 years including time already served; died 1954, 8 years including time already served; died 1967, Head of sales for dyestuffs for south-eastern Europe, 1½ years including time already served. The product is notorious for its use by Nazi Germany during the Holocaust to murder approximately 1.1 million people in gas chambers installed at … They produced everything from pharmaceuticals to manufacturing chemicals to explosives. In 1926 IG Farben had a market capitalization of 1.4 billion Reichsmark (equivalent to 5 billion 2017 euros) and a workforce of 100,000, of which 2.6 percent were university educated, 18.2 percent were salaried professionals and 79.2 percent were workers. Released in 1950, he was elected chair of Bayer's supervisory board in 1956 and remained in that position until 1964. In 2003 Degussa, a company closely associated with IG Farben during the Nazi period, was involved in a major controversy surrounding its involvement in the construction of the Memorial to the Murdered Jews of Europe ("Holocaust Memorial") in Berlin. 9". The French followed suit in the areas they controlled. Neither were production or distribution facilities consolidated nor did the commercial staff cooperate. The IG Farben Trial was the second of three trials of leading industrialists of Nazi Germany for their conduct during the Nazi regime. [54], Other IG Farben staff appear to have known. [4] IG Farben scientists made fundamental contributions to all areas of chemistry and the pharmaceutical industry. [60] Wurster became chair of the IG Farben board, helped to reestablish BASF as a separate company, and became an honorary professor at the University of Heidelberg. The firm manufactured large quantities of Zyklon-B gas used by the Nazis to kill millions of Jews at extermination camps during the Holocaust. He stated that: ...the record shows that Farben willingly cooperated and gladly utilized each new source of manpower as it developed. 's immense productive facilities, its far-reaching research, varied technical expertise and overall concentration of economic power, Germany would not have been in a position to start its aggressive war in September 1939. "IG Farben-Haus, Geschichte und Gegenwart" (in German). The defendants Ilgner and Kugler were released immediately after the judgement since they had already been in custody longer than their sentence. The judges ruled that the prosecution had not shown that the defendants or executive board "had any persuasive influence on the management policies of Degesch or any significant knowledge as to the uses to which its production was being put". In 1951 the company was split into its original constituent companies. By 2004 the university set up a permanent exhibition inside the building, and a memorial plaque, for the slave labourers of IG Farben and those who had perished by Zyklon B gas, was installed on the front of the building. Aerial photograph of Auschwitz, June 1944, showing the IG Farben plant, Peter Hayes (2001): "[I]t was Zyklon B, a granular vaporizing pesticide, that asphyxiated the Jews of Auschwitz, and a subsidiary of IG, the Deutsche Gesellschaft fur Schädlingsbekämpfung MbH (German Vermin-Combating Corporation), or Degesch, that controlled the manufacture and distribution of the Zyklon. Syarikat itu juga membuat gas racun Zyklon B, yang digunakan untuk membunuh tahanan di kem konsentrasi Auschwitz dalam Perang Dunia II. Zyklon B was the trade name of a cyanide-based pesticide invented in Germany in the early 1920s. Farben. [50], Peter Hayes (Industry and Ideology: I. G. Farben in the Nazi Era, 2001) compiled the following table showing the increase in Zyklon B ordered by Auschwitz (figures with an asterisk are incomplete). [b][15], The Allies seized the company at the end of the war in 1945[a] and the US authorities put its directors on trial. [59], Mann, Hörlein and Wuster (directors of both IG Farben and Degesch) were acquitted at the IG Farben trial in 1948 of having supplied Zyklon B for the purpose of mass extermination. [citation needed], Although IG Farben was officially put into liquidation in 1952, this did not end the company's legal existence. The nerve agent Sarin was first discovered by IG Farben. Ernst Struss, secretary of the IG Farben's managing board, testified after the war that the company's chief engineer at Auschwitz had told him about the gassings. Farbenindustrie AG, var en tysk kemi- och läkemedelskoncern.IG Farben med huvudkontor i Frankfurt am Main blev världens största kemikoncern efter bildandet 1925. Zyklon B wurde von den Dessauer Werken für Zucker und chemische Industrie (kurz: Fine) und den Kaliwerken Kolin für die Degesch (Deutsche Gesellschaft für Schädlingsbekämpfung m.b.H.) The twelve trials were all held before U.S. military courts, not before the International Military Tribunal, but took place in the same rooms at the Palace of Justice. The idea was that the inmates would be shaved and showered while their clothes were being fumigated. All defendants who were sentenced to prison received early release. As almost all its assets and all its activities had been transferred to the original constituent companies, IG Farben was from 1952 largely a shell company with no real activity. Of the 24 defendants arraigned, 13 were found guilty on one or the other counts of the indictment and sentenced to prison terms ranging from one and one half to eight years, including time already served; 10 defendants were acquitted of all charges.