The Treaty of Verdun of 843 partitioned the empire, with West Francia becoming the Kingdom of France in 987. The Pacific Collectivities (COMs) of French Polynesia, Wallis and Futuna, and New Caledonia continue to use the CFP franc[128] whose value is strictly linked to that of the euro. [54] The Wars of Religion were ended by Henry IV's Edict of Nantes, which granted some freedom of religion to the Huguenots. There were several languages and dialects, and writers used their own spelling and grammar. In addition to the submarine fleet, it is estimated that France has about 60 ASMP medium-range air-to-ground missiles with nuclear warheads,[174] of which around 50 are deployed by the Air and Space Force using the Mirage 2000N long-range nuclear strike aircraft, while around 10 are deployed by the French Navy's Super Étendard Modernisé (SEM) attack aircraft, which operate from the nuclear-powered aircraft carrier Charles de Gaulle. France is a founding and leading member of the European Union and the Eurozone,[18] and a member of the Group of 7, North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO), Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development (OECD), the World Trade Organization (WTO), and La Francophonie. One of the first usages of the term can be found in the 1803 Tribunat report, titled Résultats des guerres, des négociations et des traités qui ont préced́é et suivi la coalition contre la France ("Results of the Wars, Negotiations and Treaties that preceded and followed the Coalition against France"). A factionalist feud in the National Convention, smoldering ever since October 1791, came to a climax with the group of the 'Girondins' on 2 June 1793 being forced to resign and leave the convention. In 2008, the TeO ("Trajectories and origins") poll conducted jointly by INED and the French National Institute of Statistics[272][273] estimated that 5 million people were of Italian ancestry (the largest immigrant community), followed by 3 million to 6 million[274][275][276] of Northwest African ancestry, 2.5 million of Sub-Saharan African origin, 500,000 ethnic Armenian, and 200,000 people of Turkish ancestry. France . The Algerian independence came at a high price; the large toll on the Algerian population. ", Berkley Center for Religion, Peace, and World Affairs, "History of France – The Capetian kings of France: AD 987–1328", Hundred Years' War: Joan of Arc and the Siege of Orléans, Historical dynamics: why states rise and fall, "Scholarly bibliography by Colin Jones (2002)", Encyclopedia Of World War I: A Political, Social, And Military History, "The Danish Center for Holocaust and Genocide Studies", "BBC - History - World Wars: The Vichy Policy on Jewish Deportation", "In France, a War of Memories Over Memories of War". It is bordered by the North Sea in the north, the English Channel in the northwest, the Atlantic Ocean in the west and the Mediterranean sea in the southeast. It counts 1,200 museums welcoming more than 50 million people annually. Entre 2016 et 2018, les mots "Marseillaise" et "droits de l'Homme" ont remplacé "crise" et "chômage". Until World War II, Radicals were a strong political force in France, embodied by the Republican, Radical and Radical-Socialist Party which was the most important party of the Third Republic. Thus, nearly a fifth of the country's population were either first or second-generation immigrants, of which more than 5 million were of European origin and 4 million of Maghrebi ancestry. Cities affected by this climate: Annecy, Besançon, Bourges, Chambéry, Clermont-Ferrand, Colmar, Dijon, Grenoble, Langres, Metz, Mulhouse, Nancy, Strasbourg. In June 1812, Napoleon attacked Russia, reaching Moscow. Mais aussi l'armée, la police et la République, en queue de peloton. Interest. [20][21] It has been suggested that the meaning "free" was adopted because, after the conquest of Gaul, only Franks were free of taxation,[22] or more generally because they had the status of freemen in contrast to servants or slaves. The other, the Central Directorate for Interior Intelligence (Direction centrale du renseignement intérieur) is a division of the National Police Force (Direction générale de la Police Nationale), and therefore reports directly to the Ministry of the Interior. [473] The national rugby union team has competed at every Rugby World Cup, and takes part in the annual Six Nations Championship. "War making and state making as organized crime," in Bringing the State Back In, eds P.B. Web. France is also the most visited destination in the world,[190][191] as well the European Union's leading agricultural power. France had colonial possessions, in various forms, since the beginning of the 17th century, but in the 19th and 20th centuries, its global overseas colonial empire extended greatly and became the second largest in the world behind the British Empire. Nursery school aims to stimulate the minds of very young children and promote their socialization and development of a basic grasp of language and number. There has been no national conscription since 1997.[171]. [224] As of 2016[update], 72% of the electricity produced by France is generated by 58 nuclear power plants. They were encouraged to retain their distinctive cultures and traditions and required merely to integrate. Similar Items. France is also committed to protecting the environment: in 2018, France was ranked 2nd in the Environmental Performance Index (behind neighboring Switzerland), out of 180 countries ranked by Yale University in that study. Romantic music emphasised a surrender to nature, a fascination with the past and the supernatural, the exploration of unusual, strange and surprising sounds, and a focus on national identity. Education. Louis XIV's prime minister Jean-Baptiste Colbert founded in 1648 the Royal Academy of Painting and Sculpture to protect these artists, and in 1666 he created the still-active French Academy in Rome to have direct relations with Italian artists. [89], Since the 1995 Paris Métro and RER bombings, France has been sporadically targeted by Islamist organisations, notably the Charlie Hebdo attack in January 2015 which provoked the largest public rallies in French history, gathering 4.4 million people,[90][91] the November 2015 Paris attacks which resulted in 130 deaths, the deadliest attack on French soil since World War II[92][93] and the deadliest in the European Union since the Madrid train bombings in 2004,[94] as well as the 2016 Nice truck attack, which caused 87 deaths during Bastille Day celebrations. 06 - La ville; 07 - Les fêtes; 08 - La maison; 09 - Médias et communications; 10 - Mode, forme et santé ; 11 - Les études; 12 - La vie professionnelle; 13 - L'amour et l'argent; Chapter Objectives; Carte du site; ABOUT. France has produced some of the greatest players in the world, including three time FIFA World Player of the Year Zinedine Zidane, three time Ballon d'Or recipient Michel Platini, record holder for most goals scored at a World Cup Just Fontaine, first football player to receive the Légion d'honneur Raymond Kopa, and the record goalscorer for the French national team Thierry Henry. 19th-century French thought was targeted at responding to the social malaise following the French Revolution. Ex-King Louis XVI was convicted of treason and guillotined in January 1793. Exemple, Example, Sample, Preparation, Entrainement. [70] The interbellum years were marked by intense international tensions and a variety of social reforms introduced by the Popular Front government (annual leave, eight-hour workdays, women in government). Ravel's piano compositions, such as Jeux d'eau, Miroirs, Le tombeau de Couperin and Gaspard de la nuit, demand considerable virtuosity. Sous le quinquennat de François Hollande, les termes "chômage", "crise" et grèves" étaient les plus cités, dans cet ordre. [183] France also possesses in 2020 the fourth-largest gold reserves in the world. [18] France's total land area, with its overseas departments and territories (excluding Adélie Land), is 643,801 km2 (248,573 sq mi), 0.45% of the total land area on Earth. Its EEZ covers approximately 8% of the total surface of all the EEZs of the world. In 2004, the Institut Montaigne estimated that within Metropolitan France, 51 million people were White (85% of the population), 6 million were Northwest African (10%), 2 million were Black (3.3%), and 1 million were Asian (1.7%). [39] In 312, Emperor Constantin I converted to Christianity. The French nobility played a prominent role in most Crusades to restore Christian access to the Holy Land. [427] As of 2011[update], 75% of French had a favourable view of the United States, making France one of the most pro-American countries in the world. J’ai perdu Bobby Qu’est-ce que tu as? In 843, under the Treaty of Verdun, the empire was divided between Louis' three sons, with East Francia going to Louis the German, Middle Francia to Lothair I, and West Francia to Charles the Bald. [122] A PNR sets goals and guidelines for managed human habitation, sustainable economic development and protection of the natural environment based on each park's unique landscape and heritage. Summers are warm and dry, while winters are cool and wet. Average life expectancy at birth is 78 years for men and 85 years for women, one of the highest of the European Union and the World. With an estimated January 2021 population of 67.41 million people,[258] France is the 20th most populous country in the world, the third-most populous in Europe (after Russia and Germany), and the second most populous in the European Union (after Germany). The war cost France 300,000 casualties.[56]. [280] Many foreign Romani people are expelled back to Bulgaria and Romania frequently.[281]. According to the French Institute, this increase resulting from the financial crisis that hit several European countries in that period, has pushed up the number of Europeans installed in France. Public broadcasting group Radio France run five national radio stations. French explorers, such as Bougainville and Lapérouse, took part in the voyages of scientific exploration through maritime expeditions around the globe. [69] Between 27 and 30% of soldiers conscripted from 1912 to 1915 were killed. To be applicable, every law must be officially published in the Journal officiel de la République française. Only 6 countries give women the same work rights as men. Various routes of natural passage, such as the Rhône Valley, allow easy communications. The goal of this conference is to question European urban fringes, which we define as precise or graduated transitional spaces where the city leaves space for something else : countryside, … A small part of Northern France was occupied, but France and its allies emerged victorious against the Central Powers at a tremendous human and material cost. France has an extensive river system consisting of the four major rivers Seine, the Loire, the Garonne, the Rhône and their tributaries, whose combined catchment includes over 62% of the metropolitan territory. This number is used in postal codes and was formerly used on vehicle number plates. [218], With more than 10 millions tourists a year, the French Riviera (French: Côte d'Azur), in Southeast France, is the second leading tourist destination in the country, after the Paris region. The second is offered in high schools (lycée) and finishes in national exams leading to a baccalaureate (baccalauréat, available in professional, technical or general flavors) or certificate of professional competence (certificat d'aptitude professionelle). Overseas collectivities and territories form part of the French Republic, but do not form part of the European Union or its fiscal area (with the exception of St. Bartelemy, which seceded from Guadeloupe in 2007). As it came to an impasse, the representatives of the Third Estate formed into a National Assembly, signalling the outbreak of the French Revolution. [437], France is one of the most liberal countries in the world when it comes to LGBT rights: a 2013 Pew Research Center poll found that 77% of the French think that same-sex relationships should be accepted by society, one of the highest acceptance rates in the world (comparable to that of other Western European nations). French philosophers produced some of the most important political works of the Age of Enlightenment. [462] Paris was the first home of the International Olympic Committee, before it moved to Lausanne. In addition to its wine tradition, France is also a major producer of beer and rum. [67] After his brief return from exile, Napoleon was finally defeated in 1815 at the Battle of Waterloo, the monarchy was re-established (1815–1830), with new constitutional limitations. Until 1940, the arrondissements were territorial collectivities with an elected assembly, but these were suspended by the Vichy regime and definitely abolished by the Fourth Republic in 1946. France has been a center of Western cultural development for centuries. No major cities are affected by this climate. [105][106], Like all European Union state members, France agreed to cut carbon emissions by at least 20% of 1990 levels by the year 2020,[107] compared to the United States plan to reduce emissions by 4% of 1990 levels. Cambridge Illustrated History of France (Cambridge University Press,1999), This page was last edited on 6 February 2021, at 09:10. As for music festivals, there are several events organised, the most popular being Eurockéennes (a word play which sounds in French as "European"), Solidays and Rock en Seine. The French Revolution in 1789 saw the fall of the absolute monarchy that characterized the Ancien Régime. Metropolitan France is situated mostly between latitudes 41° and 51° N, and longitudes 6° W and 10° E, on the western edge of Europe, and thus lies within the northern temperate zone. Maurice Ravel and Claude Debussy are the most prominent figures associated with Impressionist music. The French government also succeeded in maintaining a cultural exception to defend audiovisual products made in the country. In the late 20th and early 21st centuries France has been at the forefront of the development of a supranational European Union, notably by signing the Maastricht Treaty (which created the European Union) in 1992, establishing the Eurozone in 1999 and signing the Lisbon Treaty in 2007. The TGV has been the fastest wheeled train in commercial use since reaching a speed of 574.8 km/h (357.2 mph) on 3 April 2007. [37] Many cities were founded during the Gallo-Roman period, including Lugdunum (present-day Lyon), which is considered the capital of the Gauls. [405] Moreover, this decision was confirmed in a voting in the UNESCO in 2005: the principle of "cultural exception" won an overwhelming victory with 198 countries voting for it and only 2 countries, the United States and Israel, voting against.[406]. At this time France had become a centre of artistic creation, the first half of the 19th century being dominated by two successive movements, at first Romanticism with Théodore Géricault and Eugène Delacroix, and Realism with Camille Corot, Gustave Courbet and Jean-François Millet, a style that eventually evolved into Naturalism. Primary education comprises two phases, nursery school (école maternelle) and elementary school (école élémentaire). The metropolitan area of France extends from the Rhine to the Atlantic Ocean and from the Mediterranean Sea to the English Channel and the North Sea.The overseas … Freedom of religion is constitutionally guaranteed by the 1789 Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen. [441] Being the host country of the 2015 Paris Climate Change Conference, the French government was instrumental in securing the 2015 Paris agreement, a success that has been credited to its "openness and experience in diplomacy"[442] (though the US, after the election of President Trump in 2016, then announced it will withdraw from the agreement). The current French nuclear force consists of four Triomphant class submarines equipped with submarine-launched ballistic missiles. For other uses of "La France", see, • Metropolitan France, estimate as of January 2021, Source gives area of metropolitan France as 551,500 km. Seventh in Nation Brands IndexSM", "World Service Global Poll: Negative views of Russia on the rise", "Why France is best place to live in world", Women Leaders Index Gender Equality Case Study: France. At the end of the last glacial period (10,000 BC), the climate became milder;[27] from approximately 7,000 BC, this part of Western Europe entered the Neolithic era and its inhabitants became sedentary. The four existing national channels are owned by state-owned consortium France Télévisions, funded by advertising revenue and TV licence fees. The perceived threat from anglicisation has prompted efforts to safeguard the position of the French language in France. [469], The top national football club competition is Ligue 1. [27] France has a large number of decorated caves from the upper Palaeolithic era, including one of the most famous and best preserved, Lascaux[27] (approximately 18,000 BC). These are the world's most innovative countries, "Human Development Index 2018 Statistical Update", "Corruption Perceptions Index 2018 Executive summary p. 2", "Global300 Report 2010, International Co-operative Alliance. Subsequently, Christians, who had been persecuted until then, increased rapidly across the entire Roman Empire. French companies have maintained key positions in the insurance and banking industries: AXA was in 2019 the world's third largest insurance company by total non banking assets. … These massifs delineate several sedimentary basins such as the Aquitaine basin in the southwest and the Paris basin in the north, the latter including several areas of particularly fertile ground such as the silt beds of Beauce and Brie. Since the Middle Ages, France has been a major contributor to scientific and technological achievement. The Italian Wars with Spain followed during the Renaissance. [323] In 600 BC, Ionian Greeks from Phocaea founded the colony of Massalia (present-day Marseille), on the shores of the Mediterranean Sea. The Roman de Renart, written in 1175 by Perrout de Saint Cloude, tells the story of the medieval character Reynard ('the Fox') and is another example of early French writing. About a million Frenchmen died during the Napoleonic Wars. Many French artists have been among the most renowned of their time, and France is still recognized in the world for its rich cultural tradition. However, as a result of Nicolas Sarkozy's pro-American politics (much criticised in France by the leftists and by a part of the right), France re-joined the NATO joint military command on 4 April 2009.[157][158][159]. Since 1999, civil unions for homosexual couples are permitted, and since 2013, same-sex marriage and LGBT adoption are legal. In The Spirit of the Laws, Baron de Montesquieu theorised the principle of separation of powers, which has been implemented in all liberal democracies since it was first applied in the United States. In the High Middle Ages, France was a highly decentralized feudal kingdom in which the authority of the king was barely felt. [231] Over 70% of new cars sold in 2004 had diesel engines, far more than contained petrol or LPG engines. In 2005 the national service Télévision Numérique Terrestre introduced digital television all over the territory, allowing the creation of other channels. [390][391] Major music halls and venues in France include Le Zénith sites present in many cities and other places in Paris (Paris Olympia, Théâtre Mogador, Élysée Montmartre). [315] The French healthcare system was ranked first worldwide by the World Health Organization in 1997. Also in March 1793, the civil war of the Vendée against Paris started, evoked by both the Civil Constitution of the Clergy of 1790 and the nationwide army conscription early 1793; elsewhere in France rebellion was brewing too. France has 11 million square kilometres (4.2×10^6 sq mi) of marine waters within three oceans under its jurisdiction, of which 97% are overseas. [99] Other water courses drain towards the Meuse and Rhine along the north-eastern borders. [349] Outside Paris, all the large cities have a Museum of Fine Arts with a section dedicated to European and French painting. France has a long and varied musical history. [430] A French publication, the Michelin guide, awards Michelin stars for excellence to a select few establishments. Among the 47,000 religious buildings in France, 94% are Roman Catholic. Terminology Etymology. [403], Until recently, France had for centuries been the cultural center of the world,[298] although its dominant position has been surpassed by the United States. 74 pages 1 à 30 Including metropolitan France, the total area of land under French sovereignty almost reached 13 million square kilometers in the 1920s and 1930s, 8.6% of the world's land. Histoire ", Paris, 2000 (1re éd. The Fête de la Musique, imitated by many foreign cities, was first launched by the French Government in 1982. For all levels: A1, A2, B1, B2, C1 and C2. [413][414] The sector of weekly magazines is stronger and diversified with more than 400 specialized weekly magazines published in the country. décrire. The expression Haute couture is, in France, a legally protected name, guaranteeing certain quality standards. The parks foster ecological research programs and public education in the natural sciences. off original price! Girdlestone p. 14: "It is customary to couple him with Couperin as one couples Haydn with Mozart or Ravel with Debussy. Cities affected by this climate: Arles, Avignon, Fréjus, Hyères, Marseille, Menton, Montpellier, Nice, Perpignan, Toulon. Pourquoi tu pleures? [415], The most influential news magazines are the left-wing Le Nouvel Observateur, centrist L'Express and right-wing Le Point (more than 400.000 copies),[416] but the highest circulation for weeklies is reached by TV magazines and by women's magazines, among them Marie Claire and ELLE, which have foreign versions. "Terrorisme" et "violence" moins souvent cités. The President of the Republic, currently Emmanuel Macron, is the head of state, elected directly by universal adult suffrage for a 5-year term (formerly 7 years). However, this was not always the case. - ODD ANDERSEN / AFP. [238] The University of Paris, founded in the mid-12th century, is still one of the most important universities in the Western world.